New Therapy to Treat Type 1 Diabetes Rolls Out Clinical Trial

Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition whereby the person’s own immune system attacks the pancreatic cells that produce insulin. Insulin signals for glucose uptake into cells, a carefully regulated and important process, that when disrupted, can lead to an array of health complications, and without treatment, results in death. Many advances in the care of type 1 diabetes have been made in the last century; however, there is no cure for the condition, and patients rely on frequent blood glucose monitoring and insulin injection or infusion therapy to survive.

We have been closely following the work of Dr. Bart Roep and his colleagues at the City of Hope over the last several years. We first spoke to him at the 79th American Diabetes Association (ADA) Scientific Sessions in 2019.

“Dr. Roep has dedicated his professional life to trying to cure type 1 diabetes. Over an almost 30-year career, he has earned numerous prestigious awards and is perhaps most well-known for his work discovering how T-cells recognize specific antigens on beta cells in the context of type 1 diabetes pathogenesis. Currently, he is Chan Soon-Shiong Shapiro Distinguished Chair in Diabetes and the founding chair of the Department of Diabetes Immunology within City of Hope’s Diabetes & Metabolism Research Institute. Dr. Roep is also the director of the Wanek Family Project for Type 1 Diabetes.”

The immune system coordinates defenses against pathogens (like viruses and bacteria) via intricate cross-talk between different immune cells in the body. It is also able to recognize the host (self-tolerance) and under normal circumstances, should not attempt to destroy the person’s own cells (with the exception of special circumstances, like cancerous cells, for instance).

Photo by iStock

For the treatment of autoimmune conditions, like type 1 diabetes, much research is ongoing in an effort to “re-write” some of the “programming” and cellular cross-talk thought to be responsible for autoimmune attack. The “inverse vaccine” for the treatment of type 1 diabetes attempts to do just that in the following process:

  1. Immune cells are taken from patients and “re-educated” in the test tube to improve self- tolerance
  2. These cells are injected back into the patient, in hopes that they will not longer drive autoimmune attack, but rather “educate” the immune system to tolerate the person’s own beta cells

Last year, we reported that the initial safety and tolerability studies appeared promising.

Now, additional clinical trials are poised to begin:

“The vaccine is made using one’s own immune cells (dendritic cells) and a beta cell protein. The vaccine may teach the immune system to stop attacking the beta cells, which may help the beta cells recover and make enough insulin to control blood sugar levels. The vaccine may also help reduce future type 1 diabetes related complications.”

It is a very exciting time for type 1 diabetes as we move from just treating the symptoms to actually trying to stop the disease,” Roep remarked in a recent press release.

What are your thoughts on this research? Would you participate in the trial?

Source: diabetesdaily.com

Research Trends with Dr. Maria: Beta Cells, Botox, and More

Dr. Maria Muccioli holds degrees in Biochemistry and Molecular and Cell Biology and has over ten years of research experience in the immunology field. She is currently a professor of biology at Stratford University and a science writer at Diabetes Daily. Dr. Maria has been living well with type 1 diabetes since 2008 and is passionate about diabetes research and outreach.

In this recurring article series, Dr. Maria will present some snapshots of recent diabetes research, and especially exciting studies than may fly under the mainstream media radar.

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Even Very Slightly Elevated Blood Glucose May Impact Beta Cells

When diabetes first develops, a reduction in insulin production initially results in just a slight elevation of blood glucose. A just-published study by researchers at the Joslin Diabetes Center employed cell culture and mouse models to assess how very slight elevations in blood glucose levels might affect the beta cells. Interestingly, the scientists discovered that even slight perturbations in glycemia (*as little as “being only 11 mg/dL higher than controls) could result in gene expression changes in the beta cells. The major conclusion of the investigation was that “mild glucose elevations in the early stages of diabetes lead to phenotypic changes that adversely affect beta cell function, growth, and vulnerability.” Continuing to investigate exactly how the early stages of diabetes may affect disease progression may aid in the development of treatments aimed at slowing or halting disease progression by preserving or improving beta cell function. This study also underscores the importance of early diabetes detection and treatment.

Different Subtypes of Type 1 Diabetes Classed by Age at Diagnosis

The pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes is complex, although it is generally accepted that in most cases, a genetic predisposition and an environmental trigger result in disease onset. A research study that was recently published in the journal Diabetologia aimed to investigate different subsets (endotypes) of type 1 diabetes by evaluating the level of insulin production from recently-diagnosed patients. Interestingly, the authors report that in patients who were diagnosed prior to age 30, “there are distinct endotypes that correlate with age at diagnosis”. Specifically, the new research showed that those who were diagnosed at a very young age (before seven years old) exhibited more defective insulin processing as compared to those diagnosed at age 13 and older. The scientists believe that stratifying type 1 diabetes cases by endotype will prove useful in the most appropriate design of immunotherapies to treat the condition.

Male and Female Offspring May Be Differently Affected by Maternal Diabetes

Hyperglycemia during pregnancy can negatively affect the offspring. A study published in April 2020 in the journal Brain, Behavior, & Immunity – Health indicates that the effects of hyperglycemia on central nervous system development may affect male and female offspring differently. Notably, the authors concluded that while hyperglycemia could cause developmental defects in males in females, when it came to “impairments in recognition memory,” specifically, it was found that only the females were negatively affected. Although this research was performed in rodents, it offers valuable insights into how maternal diabetes may affect offspring development in a sex-specific way. Notably, it was also demonstrated that insulin administration to achieve strict glycemic control mitigated the negative effects, once again highlighting the importance of optimal glycemic management before and during pregnancy.

Botox Injection Plus High-Protein Diet for Obesity Treatment

Interestingly, the injection of botulinum toxin (Botox) has been shown effective in the treatment of obesity. A research study recently published in the journal Obesity Surgery evaluated the efficacy of botulinum toxin injections alongside a calorie-restricted, high-protein diet for weight loss. Participants were assigned to one of three groups: 1) botulinum toxin treatment only; 2) botulinum toxin treatment + calorie-restricted/high-protein diet; or 3) calorie-restricted/high-protein diet alone. Excitingly, the results showed that patients who received botulinum toxin treatment prior to initiating the diet protocol achieved faster weight loss and experienced more positive effects in improving comorbidities. The authors theorize that botulinum toxin treatment may help “facilitate adaptation to the new diet style”.

“Kitchen Intervention” in Type 2 Diabetes Education Helps Improve Outcomes

Several educational intervention programs aimed at improving glycemic management in patients with type 2 diabetes were compared in a recent initiative by the Milwaukie Family Medicine center in Oregon. A traditional diabetes education class was implemented for one group of patients, while a second group was assigned to the traditional education program, along with a “health-focused, budget-friendly cooking class” provided by the Providence Milwaukie Community Teaching Kitchen. Hemoglobin A1c measurements were acquired at baseline, and at several months post-intervention. The recently published results demonstrated that patients who participated in the cooking class intervention, lowered their A1c levels more, on average, than those who attended the traditional education program alone. Although this initiative was a small one and yields very preliminary results, the outcomes suggest that intervention programs focused on real-life applications (like budgeting and cooking) may afford better patient outcomes.

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Please share your thoughts with us and stay tuned for more recent research updates!

Source: diabetesdaily.com

Joslin Diabetes Center: A Global Leader in Research and Care

Learn about the mission and diabetes advocacy efforts of the Joslin Diabetes Center. Check out this summary to learn more about who they are, what they do, and more.
Source: diabetesdaily.com

Diabetes Research Institute and Foundation: Committed to Curing Diabetes

Learn about the mission and diabetes advocacy efforts of the Diabetes Research Institute and Foundation. Check out this summary to learn more about who they are, what they do, and more.
Source: diabetesdaily.com

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