Diabetes + COVID Vaccines: What You Need to Know

This content originally appeared on Beyond Type 1. Republished with permission.

By Lala Jackson

COVID-19 vaccines are here. If you have diabetes and/or other underlying health concerns, you may have questions about timing, safety, and what to expect.

It’s important to remember that having well-controlled diabetes alone does not seem to put anyone more at risk for contracting the novel coronavirus, but other factors like older age, high-exposure employment, consistently elevated blood glucose levels, or other non-diabetes related health factors like obesity and hypertension may increase your risk of infection.

We also know that diabetes care itself is made far more complicated after contracting COVID-19 and protecting anyone with diabetes from getting COVID-19 is our ultimate goal. That’s why we encourage everyone with diabetes to get vaccinated as soon as possible.

Immediate side effects from the vaccines are similar to many people’s experience with the flu shot – soreness at the injection site, general muscle aches, some nausea, and tiredness. Some – but not all – people with diabetes are experiencing slightly elevated blood glucose levels. These side effects are typical, indicate the immune system is learning how to fight the virus, and go away within 24 to 48 hours.

Once you are able to get your vaccine, keep practicing safety measures. A vaccine protects you from severe outcomes from COVID-19, but it may still be possible to spread the virus to others. Keep wearing a mask and keep social distancing to help keep us safe until we’re all safe.

Want a deeper dive? Here’s everything you may want to know:

What Vaccines Are These?

In November 2020, Pfizer and BioNTech announced positive results from the conclusion of their COVID-19 vaccine clinical trials, quickly followed by Moderna. In February 2021, Johnson & Johnson’s announced the same.

Each has now been approved for use in multiple countries across the globe, with a few other vaccines rolling out on a country by country basis. Worldwide, more than 60 other vaccines are in various stages of clinical trials.

Each vaccine went through the standard three phases of clinical trials – Phase 1, where it is administered to a small number of people to show initial safety, Phase 2 to hundreds of people split into groups by things like age, ethnicity, and background to show how different types of people react to the vaccine, then Phase 3, in which it is given to tens of thousands of people, tested against a placebo. Because of the speed needed for development, both vaccines were approved to go through animal clinical trials at the same time as human Phase 1 clinical trials.

To be approved, the FDA requires the vaccine work in at least half of those who receive it. Early analysis from the National Institutes of Health independent data review board (DSMB) saw that 94-95% of those who received the Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna vaccines in the trials became immune to the coronavirus. Johnson & Johnson’s vaccine showed 66% effectiveness against the virusMost importantly, all three vaccines provide significant protection against severe outcomes from the virus.

The Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna vaccines are mRNA vaccines, a type of immunization that does not use the real virus in the vaccine, but instead employs a piece of genetic material to create antibodies against the novel coronavirus. Each of the mRNA vaccines requires two doses, given three to four weeks apart. The Johnson & Johnson vaccine is slightly different, which makes it easier to store and only requires one dose.

Other vaccines – different types of immunizations made by multiple companies – are currently in clinical trials with results expected early (and throughout) 2021. More than 50 vaccines are currently going through human clinical trials; in any trial where participants exhibit worrisome symptoms, the trial is paused and cannot proceed until any issues are corrected.

  1. More than 60 vaccines are under development worldwide. In the US, the three currently being distributed are from Pfizer/BioNTech, Moderna, and Johnson & Johnson, with some others being rolled out in certain countries.
  2. All three vaccines approved for emergency use in the US provide protection against severe complications or death from COVID-19. Each vaccine has a slightly different rate of protection against getting the virus at all, but each guarantees protection against the worst outcomes of the disease.
  3. The Moderna vaccine trials had a slightly more diverse participant group but both leading vaccine trials included participants from across races and ethnicities, age ranges, health conditions including type 1 and type 2 diabetes, etc. No specific populations experienced any major issues with the vaccines.

Do COVID Vaccines and Diabetes Mix Well?

People with diabetes in each of the vaccine’s trials have not reported major side effects (read this T1Ds experience in the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine trial). Overall, some clinical trial participants have reported mild side effects of the vaccines, much like how some people experience injection-site soreness, mild lethargy, a low-grade fever after other vaccines. These mild reactions some people experience after vaccines are typical and not cause for alarm – they are a result of the immune system going into action as purposely triggered by the vaccine, creating the ability to fight against the actual virus were a person to be exposed to it.

In the UK, two healthcare workers who received the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine during initial general population rollout experienced severe allergic reactions for which they administered adrenaline autoinjectors. Both individuals had a history of severe anaphylactoid reactions for which they carry adrenaline autoinjectors anyway, so if you are a person who does tend to experience severe allergic reactions, it is recommended that you not receive the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine at this time. Other vaccines may be better indicated for your use. If you do not have a history of severe allergic reactions, there is no reason to expect you will experience one from a vaccine.

Because of the mild symptoms experienced by some, it is important to stay vigilant about blood sugar levels for the first 24 to 48 hours after receiving the vaccine. The symptoms may impact your BG, so check your levels frequently, stay hydrated, and be familiar with your sick day routine. The mild symptoms you may experience after the vaccine are significantly safer and more easily managed than potentially getting COVID-19 itself.

As we currently understand, you are not more at risk to catch the novel coronavirus if you have diabetes, but if you do catch the virus, you may be more at risk for more severe complications from COVID-19, particularly if you have been experiencing consistently elevated blood sugar levels.

If you have specific concerns or worries, make sure you speak to a healthcare provider you trust (or keep tuning into Beyond Type 1 coverage of COVID-19 to hear from the healthcare providers we trust, like Dr. Anne Peters).

Read this T1Ds experience in the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine trial

Great, When Can I Get Mine?

While the vaccines rollout in the US started as a bit of a logistical mess, the process is finally starting to get more clear! As of March 31, the CDC classified all people with diabetes as part of priority vaccination groups, updating their previous guidance that only included type 2 diabetes. And as of April 19, the Biden administration has announced that all people aged 16 and above in the US are eligible for the COVID-19 vaccines.

The COVID vaccine rollout is being handled on a state by state basis, which has made finding vaccination appointments a bit tricky. Additionally, many states are falling short in equity – many vaccine appointments are only available online, and some states have limited and hard-to-get-to vaccine locations. If you’re trying to find a vaccine appointment, here are some recommendations:

  • VaccineFinder.org is a medical-professional vetted place to find a convenient vaccination appointment.
  • You can also look up your state health department’s guidelines. Each state generally has a special COVID-19 page where they then list out COVID-19 vaccine eligibility guidelines and locations. Many states have started working with local drug stores and pharmacies; if so, they are often linked to from the state health department website.
  • If it is unclear or you are unsatisfied with what you’ve found, go ahead and reach out to your healthcare provider. Particularly if you have a healthcare provider like an endocrinologist who helps you take care of your diabetes, they may have some insider information on how their hospital or practice is planning to distribute the vaccine. Remember to be kind and patient – healthcare providers are carrying an immense amount and they may not have an answer for you immediately.

What About Kids With Type 1 Diabetes (T1D)?

The Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine is currently approved for ages 16+; they also just requested clearance from the FDA to expand eligibility to ages 12 – 15. Initial COVID-19 vaccine trials were focused on the adult population – both because adults seem more susceptible to severe outcomes from COVID-19, and because trials for those under the age of 18 require a stricter review and approval process.

Starting in 2021 and beyond, more trials are including children so that they may be safely vaccinated against COVID-19 as well. Important to note is that children do not seem to be likely to contract coronavirus or have severe outcomes from the disease. However, as we’ve seen throughout the pandemic, disparities are abundant. Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander, American Indian, Alaskan Natives, and Hispanic children have experienced significantly higher rates of infection than their peers. Non-Hispanic Black children with T1D who contract COVID-19 are four times more likely to also experience DKA.

So while generally children are less likely to contract the coronavirus, it is important to remain vigilant and continue practicing measures to protect everyone – like wearing a mask and social distancing – to keep everyone safe until we’re all safe.

Still Have Concerns?

Individuals have expressed some hesitation to personal vaccination for COVID-19. This is an understandable feeling – vaccines do not typically make it through development and approval this quickly.

Here’s what we know:

  1. The speed with which the vaccines were developed was unprecedented. However, the clinical trials these vaccines had to go through were strict and the reporting of their safety and efficacy had to be unequivocally proven and replicated. Three phases of clinical trials, including a Phase 3 with tens of thousands of participants, had to prove safety and effectiveness of the vaccines. Phase 3 of the clinical trials were also double-blind, meaning neither the trial participants nor the company that created the vaccine knew if participants were receiving the vaccine or a placebo. Data was reviewed by the National Institutes of Health independent data review board, and final approval for the vaccines must be provided by the FDA’s Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee, composed of scientists who have no ties to the companies by which the vaccines were produced.
  2. The Moderna COVID-19 vaccine trial focused on creating a diverse trial participant group, knowing that this is vital to ensuring the vaccine works as intended across populations. 37% of the trial’s participants were from communities of color, which is similar to the US population. The Pfizer and BioNTech trial had less representation, and many of the ongoing trials are not reporting diversity numbers at all. It is vital that each and every trial not only focus on recruiting diverse – across age, race, ethnicity, health background, and more – trial participants to prove safety and effectiveness, but also proactively communicate the effects of their vaccines across groups.
  3. Black, Native (including Pacific Islander), and Latinx communities have been hit hardest by COVID-19 because of systemic and medical racism, with Black Americans dying from COVID-19 at twice the rate of white Americans. Ensuring equitable distribution of the COVID-19 vaccines is vital to work against the deep impact of systemic and medical racism, but this must be coupled with understanding distrust due to violent medical racism throughout the US’s history.
  4. We don’t know for sure what percentage of the population needs to be vaccinated in order to achieve herd immunity, but we do know that the more people who are immune to carrying or spreading the virus, the better. Those who are willing and able to take the vaccine are helping to protect everyone in their community.
  5. If, after doing research from reputable, science-based sources (we recommend science communicators like Jessica Malaty Rivera for easy-to-digest and accurate information), you are still not comfortable taking the vaccine as it becomes available to you, continue to practice safe health measures to protect yourself and others from the novel coronavirus. Until the majority of the population is vaccinated, we cannot rely on herd immunity. We must keep those most vulnerable among us safe until we’re all safe, practicing simple actions like wearing a mask and social distancing to do so.

2020 has been hard; at many times, scary and filled with grief. Working toward getting our communities safe and healthy is important for a multitude of reasons, and will take a united effort. Ensuring you have a plan for when you will get vaccinated once you can is vital to keep yourself and those most vulnerable among us safe until we’re all safe.

Source: diabetesdaily.com

What You Should Know About COVID-19 Vaccines and Diabetes

This content originally appeared on diaTribe. Republished with permission.

By Eliza Skoler and Dr. Francine Kaufman

Last updated: March 22, 2021

COVID-19 vaccines have been authorized for use in the United States and in many parts of the world. We’re here to answer questions for people with diabetes. Are the vaccines safe? How do the vaccines work and does it matter which one I get? What are the side effects, and how will the vaccine affect my blood sugar? What can I do after I am vaccinated?

Now that three COVID-19 vaccines have been authorized for use in the United States, and ten more around the world, many questions are circulating about the vaccines, their safety, and when to get vaccinated. While timing may differ by state and even between sites, people with type 2 diabetes or obesity will be eligible for early vaccination in the US in the coming months, though this may not be the case for millions of others – including those with type 1 diabetes and loved ones who are not currently recommended by CDC to receive the vaccine early. As states begin to distribute the vaccines, we’re here to answer your questions about COVID vaccination in the US; we’ll update this article as more information becomes available.

Click to jump down to a group of questions:

Why get the vaccine?
Why should I get the COVID vaccine?
How does the COVID-19 vaccine work?
How do mRNA vaccines work?​
How do viral vector vaccines work?

Vaccine Safety
Is the vaccine safe for people with diabetes?
Does it matter which vaccine you get?
Which vaccine is best for people with diabetes?​
What are the side effects? Can the vaccine be dangerous?
How will the vaccine affect my blood sugar levels?
Do diabetes medications affect the vaccine?
Should I get vaccinated if I have diabetes and other health conditions?
What is the AstraZeneca vaccine?

Getting the Vaccine
When will people with diabetes get the vaccine?
How will I know when it’s my turn to get the vaccine?
How much does the vaccine cost?
What should I expect at my vaccine appointment?
I had COVID-19 – should I still get vaccinated?
If I have symptoms of COVID-19 now should I get the vaccine?

After Receiving the Vaccine
What happens after I get the vaccine – can I still infect people with COVID?
Can I see people now that I am vaccinated?
Is one dose of the COVID vaccine effective?
Does the vaccine protect against the new variant of COVID?
Can I get COVID from the vaccine?
Are other vaccines coming?
When can I stop wearing a mask?

Why get the vaccine?

Why should I get the COVID vaccine?

The vaccine has the ability to protect you, your loved ones, and your community. It will help your body’s immune system fight off a COVID-19 infection – this means that if you are exposed to COVID, your body can protect you and significantly reduce your chances of getting sick or experiencing severe complications from the virus. Two of the vaccines that are currently authorized in the US (from Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna) are almost 95% effective at preventing symptoms of COVID in adults who have been exposed, and the third vaccine (Johnson & Johnson) is 85% effective at preventing severe COVID infection. In other words, if you are vaccinated with any of the three and then come into contact with someone who has COVID, you probably won’t get sick.

To stop the global spread of COVID-19, the majority of people around the world will have to become immune to the virus. The COVID vaccine – like the many vaccines that protect us from small pox, measles, the flu, and other illnesses – will play a major role in improving the health and wellbeing of people across the globe.

How does the COVID-19 vaccine work?

There are currently three vaccines that have received emergency use authorization in the US: the Pfizer-BioNTechModerna, and Johnson & Johnson vaccines. The Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines are similar – both use messenger RNA (mRNA) to target the “spike proteins” on COVID-19 virus molecules. The Johnson & Johnson vaccine is a viral vector vaccine that also targets the spike proteins.

How do COVID mRNA vaccines work?

mRNA contains genetic instructions (like a blueprint) for making specific proteins in cells. The mRNA in COVID vaccines was developed by scientists to trigger human cells to make harmless COVID spike proteins, and after the proteins are built the vaccine mRNA is destroyed. The body’s immune system then recognizes these foreign proteins and builds antibodies against them. This means that if you are later infected with COVID-19, you’ll have antibodies that recognize the spikes on the viral molecule and can destroy it. To learn more about this process view this detailed, interactive piece from the New York Times.

mRNA vaccines are not “live” vaccines – the live virus is not injected into a person’s body. This means that you cannot get COVID from the vaccine. Similarly, the vaccine will not alter your own genes.

How do COVID viral vector vaccines work?

Similar to an mRNA vaccine, a viral vector vaccine causes the body’s cells to make harmless COVID-19 spike proteins so that it can learn to recognize the foreign proteins and build antibodies against them. Later, if you are infected with COVID-19, your body will have antibodies ready to fight off the virus.

Instead of using mRNA, a viral vector vaccine contains the DNA for a different, harmless virus. In the case of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine, it’s an adenovirus – the type of virus that normally causes a cold or a flu – that has been engineered so that it does not make you sick. Once you get the injection and the virus is inside your body, its DNA can be read by your cellular machinery to produce spike proteins. As your immune system works to fight these foreign proteins, it will learn to protect you from COVID-19. To learn more about this process view a detailed, interactive piece from the New York Times.

Vaccine Safety

Is the vaccine safe for people with diabetes?

All three currently authorized vaccines – Pfizer-BioNTechModerna, and Johnson & Johnson – appear to be safe and effective for adults with diabetes. Rigorous clinical trials tested the safety of these vaccines in adults of all ages, races, and ethnicities, as well as chronic health conditions.

  • The Pfizer-BioNtech trial included 3,150 people with diabetes (8.4% of trial participants).
  • The Moderna trial included 2,858 people with type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes (9.4% of trial participants).
  • The Johnson & Johnson trial included 3,389 people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes (7.7% of trial participants).
  • In terms of racial and ethnic diversity, the trials each included more than 20% Hispanic or Latino participants, almost 10% African American participants, and almost 5% Asian participants.

These vaccines were advanced quickly thanks to the immense resources provided for COVID vaccine development – even with a speedy process, the vaccine manufacturers had to follow the typical safety steps and thorough checks. Read more from the CDC about how the vaccines work, potential side effects, and details from the human clinical trials.

Does it matter which vaccine you get?

No – all three of the vaccines will protect you and those around you. However, there are some differences between the vaccines that may be important to people with diabetes.

Clinical trials found both mRNA vaccines to be extremely effective in adults – with almost 95% efficacy overall, only one in 20 people that receives the vaccine would get sick from COVID. Among the trial participants with diabetes, the Pfizer-BioNtech was 95% effective and the Moderna vaccine was 100% effective, while the Johnson & Johnson vaccine was 53% effective. Participants were only followed for a few months, so we don’t yet know the long-term effectiveness of these vaccines. As more vaccines are administered there will be more data collected, and hopefully children will be enrolled in clinical trials soon.

What does it mean for these vaccines to be “effective?” If a vaccine is 50% effective it successfully protects half of the people who receive it from getting infected by COVID-19 if they are exposed. If a vaccine is 75% effective, it protects three out of four people from COVID-19 infection. More importantly, all three vaccines are highly effective at preventing severe COVID-19 infection. All three clinical trials found that in people who did get infected after vaccination, the infection was much milder – among people who had received one of the three authorized vaccines, there were almost no deaths or hospitalizations resulting from COVID-19. To learn more about how the three vaccines compare, watch this video.

During early vaccine distribution, you likely won’t have any choice in which vaccine is available to you because there will be a limited supply and the goal is to vaccinate people as quickly as possible. Both mRNA vaccines require two shots, meaning that they are not considered fully effective until you have received both doses, and your immune system has developed protection against the virus (after the second shot). You should receive two shots of the same vaccine (either Pfizer-BioNtech or Moderna). The Johnson & Johnson vaccine only requires one shot.

Which vaccine is best for people with diabetes?Which vaccine is best for people with diabetes?

Due to the distinct design of each clinical trial, it can be hard to directly compare the three vaccines that are currently authorized in the US. However, based on trial data and information from the vaccine manufacturers, here’s the best information we have on how the vaccines compare.

Vaccine data table

Image source: diaTribe

The data show that no matter which of the currently authorized vaccines you get, getting a COVID-19 vaccine is safe and important for people with diabetes. All three vaccines are highly protective against severe COVID illness and death. Click here to watch an in-depth video explaining how the vaccines compare.

What are the side effects? Can the vaccine be dangerous?

When you receive a vaccine for a particular virus, your immune system builds protection against it. Because your body is creating antibodies and learning how to fight the virus or bacteria targeted by the vaccine, you may experience normal side effects for a day or two – this is similar to getting a flu shot, and people with diabetes should monitor their blood sugar levels and have a sick day management plan ready.

According to the CDC, these are the common side effects of the COVID vaccines – they are similar for people with and without diabetes:

  • Pain, swelling, or redness in the vaccinated arm
  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Fatigue
  • Headache
  • Nausea
  • Muscle pain

These side effects are a result of your immune system preparing to combat a future viral infection – they do not mean that you have gotten sick from the vaccine itself. If your side effects don’t go away, contact your healthcare team.

Severe allergic reactions to the COVID vaccine are rare – you can learn more from the CDC here. If you have ever had an allergic reaction to any vaccine, ask your healthcare professional if you should get the COVID vaccine. If you experience a severe allergic reaction to the first dose of the COVID vaccine, do not get the second dose.

How will the vaccine affect my blood sugar levels?

Because the vaccine can cause symptoms of illness that can lead to high glucose levels, it’s important to carefully monitor your blood sugar levels for 48 hours after you receive your vaccination. Stay hydrated, and make sure to have your sick day plan ready in case you feel ill. So far, people with diabetes seem to be experiencing few side effects and minimal effect on blood sugar levels.

Do diabetes medications affect the vaccine?

At this time there is no information available on drug interactions between the authorized COVID vaccines and other medications – this has not yet been studied. However, it is not anticipated that the vaccine itself would interact with insulin or other standard diabetes medications. Note: it may be helpful to avoid injecting insulin or placing a glucose sensor or pump infusion set in your vaccine injection site for several days after vaccination.

Should I get vaccinated if I have diabetes and other health conditions?

People with complications of diabetes (including heart disease and kidney disease) are at much higher risk of severe illness from COVID-19. If you have other health conditions in addition to diabetes, getting the vaccine is especially important.

What is the AstraZeneca vaccine?

New results from the US clinical trial of the AstraZeneca viral vector vaccine show that the vaccine was 79% effective at preventing symptoms of COVID-19 infection, and fully prevented severe illness and hospitalization in more than 32,000 participants. The two-dose AstraZeneca vaccine is currently authorized in Europe and in other countries, but has not yet been authorized for use in the US. The latest clinical trial results show the vaccine to be both safe and effective.

In early March, several countries briefly paused giving people the AstraZeneca COVID vaccine due to concerns about possible rare side effects, including severe blood clots. However, since the data does not show that the vaccine increases the risk of blood clots, the World Health Organization determined that it is safe and that the benefits of the vaccine outweigh any risks. We look forward to updating this article if the AstraZeneca vaccine receives FDA authorized in the US.

Getting the Vaccine

When will people with diabetes get the vaccine?

In most places across the US, people with type 2 diabetes and obesity will be prioritized in the third group of early vaccination (Phase 1c) – this has already begun in some parts of the country. Type 1 diabetes is not currently considered a high-risk medical condition for this phase. Some diabetes experts believe that if you have type 1 diabetes and any evidence of kidney damageheart disease, or obesity with high insulin doses, it’s a good idea to seek vaccination as soon as possible because you may be at high risk for severe illness if you are infected with COVID-19. To learn about the CDC’s recommended stages of vaccination and where you fall in the vaccine line, read Dr. Francine Kaufman’s “When Can I Get the COVID Vaccine if I Have Diabetes?

How will I know when it’s my turn to get the vaccine?

The distribution of vaccines is the responsibility of each state, and states have different plans for vaccinating people. Most states will use networks within hospitals, healthcare offices, and pharmacies to distribute vaccines to residents. Depending on where you live, you may be asked to get on a vaccine waiting list. Click here to see the state by state report from the Kaiser Family Foundation, including who is currently eligible for vaccination in your state. To learn more about your place in the vaccination line, read Dr. Kaufman’s “When Can I Get the COVID Vaccine if I Have Diabetes?” If you have type 2 diabetes or obesity (a body mass index above 30 – check here), contact your healthcare office to ask when and how you can get vaccinated.

How much does the vaccine cost?

You will not have to pay for the COVID vaccine in the US; it will be given to all US residents for free. That said, some vaccination providers may charge an administration fee for delivering the injection. Ask your healthcare office if there will be any costs associated with your vaccination.

What should I expect at my vaccine appointment?

When you get your COVID vaccine, you’ll receive a paper card that says which vaccine you received, and when and where you received it. You’ll also get a fact sheet (paper or electronic) with more information about the vaccine, its benefits, and its side effects. After you get your injection, you’ll be asked to stay on-site for a short period of time so that healthcare professionals can monitor your body’s reaction.

I had COVID-19 – should I still get vaccinated?

Yes – though you can wait up to 90 days after initial onset of your COVID-19 infection. Researchers don’t know how long immunity against the virus can last after natural infection, though evidence suggests that you’re not likely to get sick with COVID again for the first 90 days. You should still get vaccinated for longer-term protection, and the CDC says that you can wait 90 days after the infection before getting your vaccine.

If I have symptoms of COVID-19 now, should I get the vaccine?

If you recently tested positive for COVID-19, are currently experiencing symptoms, or were exposed to someone with COVID, please stay away from other people.

  • If you test positive for COVID, wait until you’ve recovered (as early as 14 days from infection) and up to 90 days before getting the vaccine.
  • If you are experiencing symptoms of COVID, self-isolate and get tested.
  • If you were exposed to someone with COVID, quarantine for 14 days and monitor yourself for symptoms. Get a COVID test. If you do not get sick and your test is negative, get vaccinated once your quarantine period is over.

After Receiving the Vaccine

What happens after I get the vaccine – can I still infect people with COVID?

Once you have received both doses of the vaccine, it should protect you from getting sick with COVID. However, researchers don’t know whether you may be able to carry the virus (without symptoms) and pass it on to others. That’s why it’s still important to maintain safety measures even after receiving the vaccine: wear a face mask that fits you well if you’re in public, avoid contact with people not in your household, social distance from others, wash your hands, and monitor your health. Continuing to follow these measures will help you protect others and your community.

Can I see people now that I am vaccinated?

Two weeks after your final vaccine dose (one dose for Johnson & Johnson, two doses for Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna) you are considered to be fully vaccinated and protected against severe COVID-19 infection. According to new CDC guidelines, people who are fully vaccinated:

  • Can gather indoors with others who are fully vaccinated, with no need to wear a mask.
  • Do not need to quarantine, stay away from others, or get tested if exposed to someone with COVID – unless you begin to show symptoms of illness.

The CDC also says that people who are fully vaccinated can “visit with unvaccinated people from a single household who are at low risk for severe COVID-19 disease indoors without wearing masks or physical distancing.” However, people with diabetes have a higher risk of getting severely ill from COVID-19 (though there’s no greater chance of being infected). For this reason, even if you are vaccinated, please continue to be cautious.

Is one dose of the COVID vaccine effective?

For the Johnson and Johnson vaccine, yes.

For the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines, not entirely. Results from the clinical trials (Pfizer-BioNTechModerna) show that one dose of the vaccine can offer some protection, but two doses of both authorized vaccines are required for full efficacy.

Does the vaccine protect against the new variant of COVID?

Probably, but not certainly. Researchers are still studying the newest variants of COVID-19 to determine how effective current vaccines are at protecting against them. So far, much of the virus structure is unchanged in the variants and the currently-authorized vaccines seem to produce antibodies that recognize variants of COVID-19. Other strains of COVID will likely develop with time (similarly to the flu), and the vaccines can then be tweaked to match the changed threat. Click here to learn more about COVID variants, how they work, and what you can do to protect yourself.

Can I get COVID from the vaccine?

No. The vaccines do not contain the live virus, so they cannot infect you with COVID-19. Side effects that appear after you receive the vaccine occur because your immune system is activating and building antibodies – they are not signs of infection.

After vaccination it takes time for your body to develop full immunity to the virus, so it is still possible to get infected with COVID in the days before or after your vaccination. This does not mean the vaccine did not work; rather, it means that your immune system did not have enough time to build full immunity from the vaccine before coming into contact with the virus.

Are other vaccines coming?

To date, 13 vaccines have been approved for full or limited use around the world. Seventy-eight vaccines are currently in different stages of human clinical trials: 55 are in the early stages and 23 are in the final stages of testing. Hopefully, some of these vaccines will be found to effectively protect against COVID, opening up more vaccination options for people around the world. To track global vaccine development, view the New York Times Coronavirus Vaccine Tracker.

When can I stop wearing a mask?

Even after you get the vaccine you should still wear a face mask whenever you are in public places. Masks will continue helping to shield you from the virus and new variants of COVID (since no vaccine is perfect), and will reduce your chances of spreading COVID-19 to people around you (if you are carrying the virus and don’t have symptoms). As more people get vaccinated, the number of people carrying the virus in your community will decrease, bringing the risk of infection down. Public health authorities will make announcements about this, which may vary from place to place and even with the season.

If you are fully vaccinated, you can begin spending time with others who are fully vaccinated without wearing face masks.

While we await further information and research on COVID vaccines, protect yourself and those around you. For more information, read “Staying Safe – And Staying Well – During a Pandemic Winter” and “COVID Variants, Double Masks, Diabetes, Oh My!

Editor’s note: This article was first published on January 8, 2021, and last updated on March 22.

Dr. Francine Kaufman is Chief Medical Officer at Senseonics, a diabetes device company and Distinguished Professor Emerita of Pediatrics and Communications at the Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California.

Source: diabetesdaily.com

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